WebGIS stories

Urban air quality and thermal comfort

Project results

Result D01: Processed set of observations for Prague
TURDATA is a supplementary data set for the TURBAN project Prague observation campaign described in the manuscript Bauerová et al. 2024 (submitted for publication). The measurement campaign was focused on air pollution and meteorological measurement, including vertical profiles in selected part of Prague city centre called here as Legerova domain. Within this area, one professional meteorological station (MS) Prague Karlov and one reference traffic air quality monitoring (AQM) station Prague 2-Legerova (classified as traffic hotspot) are located. To gain high spatial and temporal resolution data, the supplementary measurement network was established, which consisted of:
- 20 combined low-cost sensor (LCS) stations for monitoring of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations (using Plantower PMS7003 particle counters and Envea Cairsense electrochemical sensors) placed in different sites and different height levels AGL (higher = H, lower = L),
- 1 mobile telescopic meteorological mast for measuring temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and direction and air pressure (using 2D ultrasonic anemometer Gill WindSonic 60 and weather station Gill MetConnect THP),
- 1 MTP-5-He microwave radiometer (MWR; Attex) for temperature vertical profile,
- 1 StreamLine XR Doppler LIDAR (HALO Photonics) for wind vertical profile.
Result D01 is available at

Result D04: Improved processes in PALM-4U model
Several new significant improvements of the PALM-4U model core have been designed, implemented and tested in the scope of the TURBAN project. These improvements present a solution to the model limitations that have been identified and explored partly before the start of the project and partly within the duration of the project. One of the significant enhancements is a new method of parallelizing the ray tracing algorithm, which has significantly accelerated radiation calculations within the model, thereby enabling detailed modeling of larger areas than was previously possible. This improvement was subsequently incorporated into the main branch of the model and used in the majority of simulations within the TURBAN project. Another crucial extension involves a new method of non-orthogonal surfaces for radiation, energy balance, and flow near surfaces, which eliminates most of the deviations caused by surface representations using the orthogonal grid of the model. The development took place in close collaboration with Leibniz University Hannover, with the Czech team implementing radiation and energy processes and adjustments to input modules. The Czech team also developed a tool capable of preparing the necessary input data for this new module from existing GIS data. This significant extension was incorporated into the main branch of the model and is ready for publication in the upcoming PALM version v.24.04. Both methods have been presented at significant international conferences, and preparation for the publication of the second mentioned method in an impact scientific journal is underway.
Result D04 is available at and in repository

Result D05: Scenarios simulations of Prague
This dataset contains simulation results for the so-called Holešovičky domain, an area in the city of Prague, Czech Republic, expected to undergo major traffic infrastructure changes in the near future. Three scenarios were modelled: current infrastructure with traffic intensity projections for 2023 (C1), future outlook with a finished part of city inner ring-road in 2030 (C2) and effect of finishing the northern part of the Prague outer ring-road (C3), which will decrease heavy traffic in the domain. Note that all scenarios have slightly different landcover (trees, buildings, bridges, tunnels etc.), so there could be small areas containing NA values in the maps and GIS files. All times are in UTC (local time, CEST is UTC +02:00).
Result D05 is available at and in repository

Result D06: Publication of data and maps from simulation scenarios for Bergen
Newly published data include two collections of simulations scenarios on thermal comfort and air pollution for the area of Danmarksplass in Bergen, Norway. The simulations were conducted using the PALM model v.23.04, with additional modules developed within the TURBAN project. They encompass two episodes: a summer heatwave (July 20th-27th, 2019) and a winter episode with high PM10 and PM2.5 pollution (February 4th-12th, 2021). The simulations are driven by boundary conditions from the WRF-ERA5 reanalysis. The dataset contains raw model results of PM10 and PM2.5 concentration variables, air temperature at 2 m, surface temperature, wind speed at 10 m in NetCDF format, and their processing into map format in PNG images. Additionally, it includes inputs necessary for replicating the simulations. These results serve both further scientific research and urbanistic evaluations of the most burdened parts of Bergen city in Norway.
Result D06 is available from Esau, I., Miles, V., Bures, M., Resler, J., & Eben, K. (2024). Scenarios simulations of Bergen (TURBAN - D06) (v1.0) [Data set]. Zenodo, at, and in repository

Result D09: Satellite remote sensing dataset for urban climate in Bergen and Prague
Shared dataset contains remote sensing data necessary for a land surface temperature (LST) calculation. Layers were processed for two cities; Bergen (Norway) and Prague (Czech Republic). Original data were downloaded from the U.S. Geological Survey ( For a LST calculation, a land surface emissivity (LSE) algorithm was used.
Processing of LANDSAT-8 and LANDSAT-9 data:
1. Reading metadata file for each scene (*MTL.txt)
2. Reprojection of scene (note: Bergen scenes have two UTM Zones; 31N and 32N)
3. Cloud cover raster (see folder 01_CloudCover)
4. Calculation Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance for bands 10 and 11 (TB_10 and TB_11), saving to folder 02_TOA-reflectance
5. Calculating of NDVI and Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC), saving to folder 03_FVC-NDVI
6. Calculating of LSE for both bands, same as different and mean LSE (folder 04_LSE)
7. Calculating of LST
8. Saving of metadata file (see *metadata.txt)
Result D09 is available at

Result D10: Technical report presenting web GIS for urban climate
This paper highlights the importance of improving stakeholder understanding of environmental factors such as air quality and the urban heat island effect to achieve sustainable development goals. While accurate spatial and temporal environmental data are critical for sustainable solutions, the challenge lies in translating complex environmental information for non-specialists. To solve this problem, we propose using web GIS storytelling as a powerful tool for communicating and disseminating information about the environment. This paper aims to show example of implementation of a web-based geographic information system (GIS) on our case study in Bergen, Norway. This platform “Web GIS Bergen, air quality and thermal comfort” was created as an open portal. This document explains the components of the platform, their rationale, and implementation, which includes important steps. They involve the collection of relevant environmental data, including modeling results and remote sensing data. Futhermore, the design and interface of the platform has been carefully considered to provide a user-friendly experience based on interactive maps and storytelling. Combining data visualization and storytelling, the platform promotes a comprehensive understanding of complex environmental data, including “invisible killers” such as air pollution and the urban heat island effect, which significantly affect sustainable development. The strategic integration of this web-based GIS platform in Bergen can serve as an attractive model for other urban areas looking for practical tools for sustainable development, engaging stakeholders for a healthier and more sustainable urban future.
Result D10 is available at and in repository

Result D13: Publication of article “Challenges of constructing and selecting the “perfect” boundary conditions for the large-eddy simulation model PALM” in GMD journal
In the top-tier scientific journal Geoscientific Model Development, an article by the TURBAN team titled "Challenges of constructing and selecting the 'perfect' boundary conditions for the large-eddy simulation model PALM" has been published. The article describes the influence of boundary conditions obtained from a regional meteorological model on simulations of a microscale urban model and tests various settings of the regional model to obtain the best results for the urban model.

Result D15: Series of workshops and final in-person TURBAN project meeting in Norway
In the days of 3rd to 5th April 2024, a series of workshops took place in the Norwegian cities of Bergen, Ålesund, and Trondheim. The workshops were intended for both professional and lay audiences, attended by people from universities, research institutions, as well as representatives from municipalities. Selected project results with implications for urban planning applications were presented at the workshops. The workshops were jointly organized by the TURBAN and URSA MAJOR projects. Prior to the start of the workshops, the final in-person meeting of Czech and Norwegian project partners within the TURBAN project also took place. We all hope that this was not the last meeting and that we will continue our successful cooperation in the future with further joint activities.
Result D15 for Prague is available at and for Bergen at

Result D17: Maps of simulations and measurements for Prague
The new set of professional maps includes model output maps from the PALM model for Prague, specifically for the Legerova and Sokolská streets and their surroundings. Simulations of 6 selected episodes from various parts of the year are presented, with maps containing variables such as PET, UTCI, and concentrations of substances PM10, PM2.5, and for winter episodes S4 and S6 also NO and NO2 substances. Additionally, the file contains maps of measurements of NO, NO2, O3, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations obtained from a sensor network and included in the TURDATA file (Result D01).
Result D17 is available at and in repository

Result D18: Maps of detailed, spatially, and temporally resolved emissions for Prague
This new set of professional maps contains spatially and temporally resolved emission maps for Prague, specifically for the area of Legerova and Sokolská streets and their surroundings. These emissions serve as one of the inputs for the PALM model simulations of this area (Result D17). The emissions were generated based on the compilation of highly detailed data, which were subsequently processed by the FUME emission model. For instance, traffic emissions are derived from data collected by traffic counters and other detailed transportation data. The file represents currently the most accurate estimate of emissions for the given area and time period.
Result D18 is available at and in repository

Result D21: The Web-GIS story including the results of the TURBAN project
The results of scientific work are often difficult for both expert and lay audiences interested in urban-related issues to understand. To facilitate the transfer of scientific results into practice, a new system of "stories" based on WebGIS technology has been created. These stories aim to highlight selected urban environment-related issues and research results that can help address them. The goal of this website is not to provide scientifically precise data, but rather to provide users with a basic orientation in an engaging manner through stories and direct them to relevant sources of information. Stories for Prague and Bergen are available at address in English and at in Czech.
Result D21 is available in repository

Result D22: Sensitivity assessment of scenario simulations for Bergen
The newly published data include a map infographic examining the sensitivities and uncertainties in scenario simulations for Bergen using the PALM model (Result D06). The maps present the model's responses to changes in critical simulation parameters, such as sensitivity to grid refinement. This sensitivity assessment provides important information for future design of simulation experiments and interpretation of their results. Additionally, this file briefly addresses questions posed by Norwegian stakeholders during a joint workshop of the TURBAN and URSAMajor projects in Bergen-Ålesund-Trondheim on April 3rd-5th, 2024.
Result D22 is available from: Esau, I. (2024). Sensitivity assessment of the scenario simulations (Bergen) (TURBAN - D22) (v1.0). Zenodo.

Peer-reviewed publications

Wolf, T., Pettersson, L. H., and Esau, I.: Dispersion of particulate matter (PM2.5) from wood combustion for residential heating: optimization of mitigation actions based on large-eddy simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12463–12477,, 2021.

Resler, J., Eben, K., Geletič, J., Krč, P., Rosecký, M., Sühring, M., Belda, M., Fuka, V., Halenka, T., Huszár, P., Karlický, J., Benešová, N., Ďoubalová, J., Honzáková, K., Keder, J., Nápravníková, Š., and Vlček, O.: Validation of the PALM model system 6.0 in a real urban environment: a case study in Dejvice, Prague, the Czech Republic, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4797–4842,, 2021.

Belda, M., Resler, J., Geletič, J., Krč, P., Maronga, B., Sühring, M., Kurppa, M., Kanani-Sühring, F., Fuka, V., Eben, K., Benešová, N., and Auvinen, M.: Sensitivity analysis of the PALM model system 6.0 in the urban environment, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4443–4464,, 2021.

Krč, P., Resler, J., Sühring, M., Schubert, S., Salim, M. H., and Fuka, V.: Radiative Transfer Model 3.0 integrated into the PALM model system 6.0, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3095–3120,, 2021.

Turčičová, M., Mandel, J., Eben, K.: Score matching filters for Gaussian Markov random fields with a linear model of the precision matrix, Foundations of Data Science. Vol. 3, Issue 4 (2021), pp. 793-824. E-ISSN 2639-8001,, 2021

Bauerová, P. et al.: Project TURBAN - Measurement campaign for air quality and meteorology in Prague, data support for the possibility of validation of a microscale urban model. In: Consultation on the selected projects for the research on adaptation of Prague to climate change. Prague, Czech Republic, 15. 12. 2022. Video record available at

Ezau, I.: TURBAN – Observational datasets for studies of urban air quality hazard scenarios in Bergen, Norway, DataverseNO, V1,, 2023.

Geletič, J., Lehnert, M., Resler, J., Krč, P., Middel, A., Krayenhoff, E. S. and Kruger, L. E.: High-Fidelity Simulation of the Effects of Street Trees, Green Roofs and Walls on the Distribution of Thermal Exposure in Prague-Dejvice, Build. Environ., 223, 109484,, 2022.

Geletič, J., Lehnert, M., Resler, J., Krč, P., Bureš, M., Urban, A. and Krayenhoff, E.S.: Heat exposure variations and mitigation in a densely populated neighborhood during a hot day: Towards a people-oriented approach to urban climate management, Build. Environ., 242, 110564,, 2023.

Miles, V., Esau, I., Pettersson, L.: Using web GIS to promote stakeholder understanding of scientific results in sustainable urban development: A case study in Bergen, Norway. Sustainable Development, 1–13., 2024.

Bauerová, P., Šindelářová, A., Keder, J., Vlček, O., Patiño, W., Resler, J., Krč, P., Řezníček (Reznicek), H., Geletič, J., Bureš, M., Eben, K., Belda, M., Radović, J., Fuka, V., Jareš, R., Ezau, I.: TURDATA: a database of low-cost air quality and remote sensing measurements for the validation of micro-scale models in the real Prague urban environments (0.1) [Data set]. Zenodo., 2024.

Geletič, J.: Satellite remote sensing dataset for urban climate in Bergen and Prague. Zenodo., 2024.

Geletič, J., Bauerová, P., Belda, M., Bureš, M., Eben, K., Fuka, V., Karel, J., Keder, J., Krč, Pavel, Jareš, R., Patiño, W., Radović, J., Resler, J., Řezníček, H., Šindelářová, A., Vlček, O. Scenarios simulations of Prague. Zenodo., 2024.

Esau, I.: Sensitivity assessment of the scenario simulations (Bergen) (v 1.0). Zenodo., 2024

Esau, I., Miles, V., Bures, M., Resler, J., & Eben, K.: Scenarios simulations of Bergen (v 1.0) [Data set]. Zenodo., 2024